The fourth lesson of free online English spoken lesson is based on discourse marker,the words or phrases that make the meanings, structures and messages of spoken English easily comprehensive to the audiences. It will also help you to make your spoken English more standard than before.
Discourse Marker (DM)
Discourse markers are the words, phrases (groups of words) or expressions having distinct and different applications. Let’s have a complete idea of ‘Discourse’ first, before diving deep into the ‘Discourse Markers’.
Frankly speaking, every oral and written expression is discourse. More specifically, the sentences, speeches, dialogues and statements that we make to express our thoughts and theories can be considered as discourse.
According to Oxford, Discourse is “a long and serious treatment or discussion of a subject in speech or writing.”
Now, let’s pay heed to ‘discourse marker’. The words or phrases that make the meanings, structures and messages of discourse easily comprehensive to the audiences, and that make coherence in discourse, are discourse markers.
It is practically noted, not all words or group of words can be regarded as discourse markers. Only those words or phrases that make linguistic connections to discourse or sentence; that mark the time, place or condition of sentence and that focus the attitude- grand or mean, inspiring and depressing- of a speaker to the audiences, can be taken as discourse markers.
Let’s now try to recognize discourse markers in a sentence. Conventionally, adverbs and adverbial phrases work for discourse markers. They can be placed in the beginning, middle or end of a sentence and modify a part or whole of the sentence. Look at the following exemplifications-
Beginning: Practically speaking, a mixture of lie in truth ever adds pleasure.
Middle: He is, however, a good student.
End: Putul has an I-pad as well.
The major functions of discourse markers are listed below:
- Discourse markers show the relation or link among the present, past and future actions.
- They show speaker’s attitude.
- They clarify the discourse to the audiences.
- They persuade the audiences.
- They create coherence in discourse.
Discourse markers may also be called connectives or linking words or linkers.
A regular practice of the following discourse markers can complete and standardize the discourse of the speakers:
Major functions of discourse markers:
- Discourse markers show the relation between the present action and the past action.
- They show the link between the present action and the future action.
- They show the speaker’s attitude expressed in the discourse.
- They explain the discourse to the audience.
- They direct the audience.
- They persuade the audience, etc.
Some commonly used discourse Markers are :
What are you doing now?
At present, I’m working at Saifur’s as a phonetics teacher.
Sir, I heard that phonetics course is very difficult. Is it right?
Oh! No, actually, it’s a very interesting course.
Sir, someone is waiting for you.
Anyway, let him come here.
Sir, how can I improve my pronunciation?
Thank you very much for your question. Basically, it depends on practice. You have to listen a lot.
By the way
Sir, I am an employee. It is not possible for me to attend the classes 3 days in a week.
By the way, you can join our Friday’s only classes.
Sir, would you please take our class today?
Certainly, It will be held at 5 P.M.
What about you brother?
Currently, he is working in Bangladesh Bank.
m… I mean
We will teach you phonetics.
Phonetics, m… I mean correct pronunciation?
Yes, that’s right.
I would like to go tonight.
I think it will be better if you go tomorrow.
Mum, what time is it?
I guess, it’s 10:30. Let me check please.
Let me see –
What is her number?
Let me see, I have it here somewhere….
After that, …………………..
Last but not the least, ….
And finally, ……………….
Sir, what is the benefit of this phonetics course?
There are many benefits :
Firstly, it will help communicate better with English speaking people.
Secondly, you will be able to learn the correct pronunciation of all the English words.
Thirdly, your speaking style will be like the native speakers.
Then, you will be smarter than before.
After that, you will achieve the capability to take English proficiency test like IELTS, TOEFL and you will be confident enough to face any type of interviews.
Last but not the least, proper knowledge of phonetics will help you to lead your contemporaries.
Finally, knowledge of phonetics will add extraordinary artistic flavor to your personality.
You know that -
How was your exam?
You know that I was ill but I tried my best.
How is their service?
Really, it is very good.
Already you have learnt a lot of things. Now, you have to practice.
Sir I have finished my homework.
OK, I will check it.
Sir, it’s wrong, he has given you a false information (Z_¨).
Ok, now I have understood.
Sir everything is okay.
So, we should start now.
Now I would like to request our honorable member to deliver his important Speech.
Well, thank you very much, I am……….
I am sorry for my ignorance. Actually, I am not a good speaker but I will try my best to say something.
Oh heavens! I have forgotten
What time is it?
Oh heavens! I have forgotten, I have to go to the library.
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